E-mail Etiquette – readers digest



Dos and Don’ts

  1. Don’t use CAPITAL LETTERS-it’s the equivalent of shouting
  2. Don’t send emotionally charged messages.If you wouldn’t say it to the recipient’s face,don’t send it
  3. Don’t e-mail confidential material.It could end up in the wrong hands.Send a letter instead.
  4. Do be specific in the subject line.Your message could get deleted if it looks like spam
  5. Do answer at the top, not the bottom,of an e-mail.It’s annoying having to scroll down the bottom to read a response.
  6. Do stick with black font, no larger than 12 points in size. This is the easiest type to read.


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tiger grouper

1.No stock losses due to adverse climatic and environmental conditions, and there are no predators to manage

2.Able to produce ‘Organic’ fish with no contamination from chemicals, heavy metals, oil and other pollutants

3.Strict quarantine and health management in RAS reduce transfer of viral and other fish diseases in the production system thereby reducing the need to use antibiotics and chemicals

4.Efficient water treatment and water recirculation in the RAS reduce the amount of wastes and pollutants release

5.There is no escape of non-native fish species into the environment

6.No loss of fish feed into the environment

7.Choice of fish species is not limited by farm location and environment

8.Efficient site utilization in RAS reduces competition with other users of water and land resources

9.A 200 mt/yr RAS for example occupies no more than a hectare (ha) of land; similar pond based farming will require between 25 and 40 ha or more land.



  1. RAS stands for Recirculation Aquaculture System
  2. A hi-tech way to grow and farm fish intensively under controlled conditions for optimum survival and growth of fish.
  3. Rears fish at high densities in indoor tanks.
  4. Allows efficient recirculation, filtration and removal of wastes prior to recycling back to the fish grow-out units. New water is added to the RAS only to make up for water loss through system flushing and minor evaporative loss.
  5. Predominantly used in land-based operation.
  6. It involves both freshwater and seawater.


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  1. RAS technology has been under intensive R&D for over 30 years.
  2. Many pilot systems with varying degree of efficiencies and performances have been developed.
  3. During early years of RAS development, lack of understanding of this new technology has led to many unsubstantiated and wild claims on their capacity and performance outputs.
  4. This has resulted in many early failures in transferring this technology to some countries and to investors resulting in bad publicity for the RAS technology.
  5. However, the situation is changing rapidly and in recent years, many successful and economically viable RAS have been set up in Australia, Europe and America.
  6. Commercial RAS have been proven to be successful in countries like China (70%), Australia, USA, Canada and Europe.




Fig. 1 shows a schematic diagram of a typical RAS technology and its major components.

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My True Love 1

Sometimes the heart takes unexpected turns | by Aung Linn

Almost 30 years ago, Khin Khin Lay and I were medical students in the town of Mingaladon,17 kilometers north of the capital Yangon, then called Rangoon. We were together all the time-attending lecturers and tutorial classes, doing l;abaratory experiemnts and studying bedside cases.

Khin Khin was an oriental beauty with fair complexion and black hair. She was vicacious, sociable and smart. I on the other hand, was quiet,gentle and lonely, having only a few intimate friends. She was constantly wooed by admirers, but i was not among them My parents were poor and my uncle paid my university fees. Having to meet their expectations, I had no time for romance.

In our final year, she became engaged to a doctor who was just about to go to ENgland for further study.

After our final year, Khin Khin and I became interns at North Okkalarpa General Hospital.The work was’nt as demanding as our studies had been, and we spent more time together.Icould feel a profpund attachment froming between us, but I also felt uneasy because she had a fiance.

One day, as we watched a movie together, I lightly touched her hand.To my surprise,she squeeezed my fingers.Later,at her sister’s a[partment in the capital, we feel into each other’s arms. “I really love you,” I said
“Me too”she replied

I returned to my room, thinking many happy days were still ahead.A week later,Khin Khin handed me a letter,”My fiancee is coming back soon,”it said. “Though I love you so much.I can’t marry you.Let’s stay away from each other.”

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